SS 6.W.1.3 Interpret primary and secondary sources.
SS 6.E.1.2 Describe and identify traditional and command economies as they appear in different civilizations.
SS 6.E.1.6 Describe the following economic concepts as they relate to early civilizations: scarcity, opportunity cost, supply and demand, barter, trade, productive resources (land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship).
FS 1003.42 Required Holocaust Education Mandate Public School Instruction
Authors Amy Burch and Kelly Bowen
Teacher will assess students’ ability to interpret primary and secondary sources in order to compare traditional, market, mixed and command economies via verbal feedback to student’s verbal responses during 6th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition.
Teacher will assess students’ ability to interpret primary and secondary sources in order to compare traditional, market, mixed, command economies via written or verbal feedback to students’ written responses to Types of Economies independent practice worksheet.
Teacher will assess students’ ability to define and give examples of economic concepts via written or verbal response to Types of Economies independent worksheet.
Teacher will assess students’ ability to examine how an economy can be impacted by external factors (such as political change, war, climate) and the economic impact of WWII and Holocaust on people of Europe via students’ responses to discussion of 6th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition.
Feedback to Students
Students will receive verbal feedback to their verbal responses during 6th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition.
Students will receive written or verbal feedback to their written responses to Types of Economies independent practice worksheet.
Students will receive written or verbal feedback to their written responses on Types of Economies independent worksheet.
Students will receive verbal or written feedback on Exit Ticket assignment.
Students will receive written feedback on Types of Economies Scenarios.
Summative Assessment Task:
Students will individually complete Economic Systems Scenarios Assessment to demonstrate mastery of learning objectives.
See Support Materials for Economic System Scenarios Assessment
Students will interact with primary and secondary sources to:
Compare market, mixed, command and traditional economies.
Define and give examples of economics concepts (scarcity, supply and demand, barter, and entrepreneurship).
Examine how an economy can be impacted by external factors (such as political change, war, climate).
Examine the economic impact of the Holodomor, WWII and the Holocaust on people of Europe.
What evidence from 6th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition demonstrates how the Holodomor, Holocaust and WWII impacted Ukrainian and Russian economies?
How did the Holodomor, Holocaust and WWII directly impact Teodora Verbitskaya and her family economically?
How do traditional, market, mixed, and command economies benefit and/or limit citizens of a country.
Students should be able to distinguish between primary and secondary resources.
Students should have some background knowledge of market and international economies.
Students should have some background knowledge of WWII and the Holocaust.
Pre-Teach Vocabulary as needed:
Primary Source: original documents and objects that were created at the time or told by someone who experienced the event or time period first hand
Secondary Source: accounts or interpretations of events created by someone without firsthand experience
Holodomor: death by starvation, made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932-1933 under Stalin
Economic system: the way a country or culture produces and distributes goods and services
Goods: produced or harvested resources that can be used to satisfy demand of consumers
Resource: natural or man-made items
Services: activities that meet the demand of consumers
Producer: a person, company or country that creates or supplies goods and/or services
Consumer: a person, company or country that purchases and uses good and/or services
Trade: exchange of goods and services for currency and sometimes other goods or services
Barter: exchange of goods for other goods or services
The following vocabulary will be introduced to students in Historical Overview of Two Regimes by Dr. Jonathan Grant:
New Economic Policy (NEP): early Soviet mixed economy (a largely state controlled economy with pockets of private enterprise)
Mixed Economy: system combining governmental control with elements of market economy
Market Economy: type of economic system in which individuals and private businesses make economic decisions influenced by supply and demand without government interference.
Command Economy: type of economic system in which the government controls decision about the production and distribution of goods and services.
Traditional Economy: type of economic system in which traditions, customs, and beliefs influence the production and distribution of goods and services largely based bartering.
Entrepreneur: one who takes a risk to invent a new product or begin a new business to earn a profit
Introduce lesson by telling the story of a Ukrainian woman named Teodora Verbitskaya and her daughters, Lyucia and Nadia who witnessed and survived the Holodomor in 1932-1933 and who experienced the military occupation forces of Nazi Germany in late 1941 during World War II. They witnessed the roundup of 7,500 Jews from Mariupol who were later murdered and buried in anti-tank trenches outside of the city of Mariupol, Ukraine in October 1941. The Germans forced Teodora and her daughters to Germany and serve as slave laborers. They were liberated from German control by American forces at the end of World War II.
Explain that Teodora Verbitskaya kept diaries of her life experiences that were later published. Then explain that her oldest daughter, Nadia Werbitzky, went on to become an artist and that many of her paintings are memory paintings from her life experiences as a young person.
Explain to students that in this lesson they will learn about four different types of economy, which were in place in Ukraine and Russia during WWII, the Holodomor, and the Holocaust and the economic impact on the lives of European people. This will be accomplished by interacting with the primary source memoir of Teodora Verbitskaya and paintings by her daughter, Nadia Werbitzky. Share that works of these two women were later published in a book entitled Two Regimes – A Mother’s Memoir of Wartime Survival.
For background information see Support Materials:
Historical Overview of Two Regimes by Dr. Jonathan Grant
Historical Overview of the Holocaust by Dr. Michael Berenbaum
Nadia Werbitzky Biographical Information
Teodora Verbitskaya Biographical Information
Holodomor 1932-1933 – At a Glance
Holocaust 1933-1945 – At a Glance
Present Historical Overview for Two Regimes by Dr. Jonathan Grant to entire class.
Next, present6th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition to entire class with particular emphasis on the following paintings by Nadia Werbitzky:
Autumn in Yeysk, The Harvest, Potatoes Harvest, The Gathering and Winter Landscape.
Read text in 6th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition PDF that was written by Teodora Verbitskaya
View 6th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition video – YouTube (easy to understand American English)
Have students work in pairs or small groups to think about and discuss the people depicted in these stories and paintings. What did we learn about the lives of these people? What can we tell about the economic status of these people? How did these people attempt to get their needs met? What events and/or circumstances altered their lives economically?
Discuss student responses as whole group and record for visual display.
See Support Materials for:
Historical Overview for Two Regimes by Dr. Jonathan Grant
Historical Overview of Holocaust by Michael Berenbaum
6th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition PDF
6th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition Video – YouTube
Holodomor 1932-1933 – At a Glance
Holocaust 1933-1945 – At a Glance
Distribute 4 Types of Economies Handout to each student. Allow students time to read and work in pairs, or small groups to compare the characteristics of each type of economy on the handout. Ask students to think about some of the advantages and disadvantages of each system. Then distribute and discuss 4 Types of Economies: Advantage and Disadvantages.
Next ask students which type of economy was depicted in 6th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition PDF. Ask what information led them to their decision.
Distribute or display a copy of Types of Economies worksheet to each student. Have students complete independently. Review and discuss afterward.
Name and describe the 4 types of economies
Explain how the command economy the Holodomor and WWII created hardships for Russians and Ukrainians.
Students with visual or hearing difficulties may be seated closer to audio/visual equipment.
Students who are non-sighted will be provided with a verbal description of each painting. Teacher should seek assistance from student’s ESE service provider in adapting necessary materials to meet student’s needs (provided in Support Materials).
Teacher will stop the video as necessary for clarification and discussion.
Students who are unable to work in pairs for discussions may choose to share their ideas independently in writing.
Students who struggle with motor skills can use word processor or dictate the independent practice and summative assessment task.
To further extend this lesson:
Students may create role plays to present to the class that depict one of the four economic systems. They should present a scene from which the rest of the class will have to identify the type of economic system the actors are “living” under.
Students may research economies of participating countries during WWII and the role their economy played in their participation.
Teacher must determine if the paintings in the exhibition are appropriate for the class. It is recommended that the teacher listen to the narrative in advance of lesson.
Students will explore types of economies and economic concepts by examining and interpreting primary and secondary historical sources including the memoir of Teodora Verbitskaya and paintings by her daughter, Nadia Werbitzky.
Sponsored in part by the State of Florida, Division of Cultural Affairs, the Florida Council on Arts and Culture and the Foundation for Leon County Schools.