SS 7.C.3.1 Compare different forms of government (direct democracy, representative democracy, socialism, communism, monarchy, oligarchy, autocracy).
FS 1003.42 Required Holocaust Education Mandate Public School Instruction
Authors Amy Burch and Kelly Bowen
NOTE: Be sure to preview all materials before using with your students.
Teacher will assess students’ ability to compare forms of government via verbal feedback to student’s verbal responses during 7th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition.
Teacher will assess students’ ability to compare forms of government via verbal feedback to student’s written responses to Evidence of Government Involvement Note-Taking Form.
Teacher will assess students’ ability to identify and compare forms of government via written feedback to students’ written responses to Witness to War: Response Questions independent practice worksheet.
Teacher will assess students’ ability to define and identify different forms of government via written response to Forms of Government Scenarios independent worksheet.
Teacher will assess students’ ability to identify and describe different forms of government and tell how different forms of government impacted the lives of Teodora Verbitskaya and Nadia Werbitzky via written or verbal feedback to student’s written or verbal response to Exit Ticket
Feedback to Students
Students will receive verbal feedback to their verbal responses during 7th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition.
Students will receive verbal feedback to their written responses to Evidence of Government Involvement Note-Taking Form.
Students will receive written feedback to their written responses on Witness to War: Response Questions.
Students will receive written feedback on Forms of Government Scenarios independent practice assignment.
Students will receive verbal or written feedback on Exit Ticket assignment.
Summative Assessment Task:
Students will write an essay that describes how the socialist governments of Lenin, Stalin and Hitler impacted the lives of families in Soviet Ukraine and Germany in the 1930s and 1940s AND compares that socialist government and its impact on its citizens with the representative democracy form of government of the U.S.A. and its impact on the lives of its citizens today using information from Two Regimes: Witness to War.
Teachers will determine their own grading criteria. However, written responses should include specific examples from Two Regimes that demonstrate their understanding of forms of government.
Students will interact with primary and secondary sources to:
Define and describe different forms of government (direct democracy, representative democracy, socialism, communism, monarchy, absolute monarchy, oligarchy, autocracy).
Compare different types of government especially socialism and democracy.
How did the socialist governments of Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler impact the lives of families in Soviet Ukraine and Germany in the 1930s and 1940s?
How does that compare with the representative democracy form of government in the U.S.A. today?
Students should have some background knowledge of forms of government.
Students should have some background knowledge of WWII and the Holocaust.
Students should have some background knowledge of the overthrow of the government of Nicholas II and the socialist government takeover of Stalin.
Pre-Teach Vocabulary as needed:
Socialism: form of government where the economy is controlled by the government
Economy: the wealth and resources of a country or family, especially with goods and services
Holocaust: mass killing of Europeans, especially the Jews, by the Nazis during WWII
Holodomor: death by starvation, man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932-1933 under Stalin
Republic democracy: form of government where the power is with the people
Collective farming: small farms that are owned and controlled by the government
Concentration camp: a place where large numbers of people are imprisoned to await death by mass killings
Steppe: large area of flat, unforested grassland in southeastern Europe and Siberia
Kremlin: location in Moscow of the central offices of the Russian government
Trench: a large deep ditch
German prison camp: a prisoner of war camp where outdoor work is done for the government
The following vocabulary will be introduced to students in Historical Overview of Two Regimes by Dr. Jonathan Grant:
Absolute monarchy: a form of autocracy where a person becomes the sole leader of a country by being born into a family of rulers; there are no limits on the monarch’s power
Autocracy: a form of government where one person has unlimited power
Communism: a form of government in which a single ruling party owns and controls the entire economy, and in which no private ownership is allowed
Dictator: a military leader who becomes the head of a country, often by force
Direct democracy: a form of government in which the power to govern is directly in the hands of the people rather than elected representatives
Monarchy: a form of government headed by a king or queen who inherits the position, rules for life, and holds power that can range anywhere from between limited to absolute
Oligarchy: a form of government in which a small group (often of wealthy people) has total control and power
Representative democracy/republic: a form of government in which the people elect representatives to make laws for them
Socialism: a form of government in which the government plays a major role in running the economy, but private ownership is also allowed and leaders may be elected by the people
Introduce lesson by telling the story of a Ukrainian woman named Teodora Verbitskaya and her daughters, Nadia and Lyucia who witnessed and survived the Holodomor 1932-1933 and who experienced the military occupation forces of Nazi Germany in late 1941 during World War II. They witnessed the roundup, by the Nazis, of 7,500 Jews from Mariupol who were later murdered and buried in anti-tank trenches outside the city of Mariupol, Ukraine in October 1941. The Germans forced Teodora and her daughters to Germany to serve as slave laborers. They were liberated from German control by American forces at the end of World War II.
Explain that Teodora Verbitskaya kept diaries of her life experiences that were later published. Then explain that her oldest daughter, Nadia Werbitzky, went on to become an artist and that many of her paintings are memory paintings from her life experiences as a young person.
Explain to students that in this lesson they will learn about different forms of government, which forms were in place in Ukraine and Russia during WWII. They will learn how these forms of government, as well as the Holodomor and the Holocaust, impacted the lives of European people. This will be accomplished by interacting with the primary source memoir of Teodora Verbitskaya and paintings of her daughter, Nadia Werbitzky. Share that works of these two women were later published in a book entitled Two Regimes – A Mother’s Memoir of Wartime Survival.
For background information see Support Materials:
Historical Overview of Two Regimes by Dr. Jonathan Grant
Historical Overview of the Holocaust by Dr. Michael Berenbaum
Nadia Werbitsky Biographical Information
Teodora Verbitskaya Biographical Information
Holodomor 1932-1933 – At a Glance
Holocaust 1933-1945 – At a Glance
Present Historical Overview for Two Regimes by Dr. Jonathan Grant to entire class.
DistributeEvidence of Government Involvement Note-Taking Form to each student to use during presentation and afterward to detail how the governments under Lenin, Stalin and Hitler regimes impacted ordinary families in Russia and Germany.
Next, present 7th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition PDF or video to entire class.
View 7th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition video – YouTube (easy to understand American English)
After viewing Exhibition, have students work in pairs or small groups to discuss their responses on Evidence of Government Involvement Note-Taking Form.
In small groups, have students discuss the following discussion questions:
What did we learn about the forms of government?
How did the government impact the lives of these people?
Compare that to the way our government controls our family life.
Discuss student responses to discussion questions as whole group. Record for visual display if desired.
See Support Materials for:
Historical Overview for Two Regimes by Dr. Jonathan Grant
Historical Overview of Holocaust by Dr. Michael Berenbaum
7th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition PDF
7th Grade Two Regimes Witness to War Exhibition video – YouTube
Evidence of Government Involvement Note-Taking Form
Distribute to each student a copy of Witness to War: Response Questions. Have each student complete independently. Discuss and share responses at the end of lesson.
Next, Distribute Questions to Ask about Governments and Types of Government Graphic Organizer to each student.
Allow students time work in pairs, or small groups to discuss both handouts and then complete the Types of Government handout.
Ask students to think about some of the advantages and disadvantages of each form or type of government.
Distribute or display a copy of Forms of Government Scenarios worksheet to each student. Have students complete independently. Review and discuss afterward.
Name and describe the 8 forms of government.
Tell how different forms of government impacted the lives of Teodora Verbitskaya and Nadia Werbitzky.
Students with visual or hearing difficulties may be seated closer to audio/visual equipment.
Students who are non-sighted will be provided with a verbal description of each painting. Teacher should seek assistance from student’s ESE service provider in adapting necessary materials to meet student’s needs.
Teacher will stop the video as necessary for clarification and discussion.
Students who are unable to work in pairs for discussions may choose to share their ideas independently in writing.
Students who struggle with motor skills can use word processor or dictate the independent practice and summative assessment task.
To further extend this lesson:
Students may create role plays to present to the class that depict different forms of government. They should present a scene from which the rest of the class will have to identify the form of government the actors are “living” under.
Students may research the form of government of participating countries during WWII and the role their government played in their participation.
Students may research to learn how different forms of government have changed over time.
Teacher must determine if the paintings in the exhibition are appropriate for the class. It is recommended that the teacher listen to the narrative in advance of lesson.
Students will learn about different forms of government through a memoir entitled Two Regimes – A Mother’s Memoir of Wartime Survival written by Teodora Verbitskaya and illustrated by Nadia Werbitzky who witnessed and survived the Holodomor 1932-1933 and who experienced the military occupation forces of Nazi Germany during World War II, witnessed the roundup of 7,500 Jews of Mariupol who were later murdered outside the city limits. Then Teodora and her daughters were forced to Germany to serve as slave laborers and were liberated from German control by American forces at the end of World War II.
Sponsored in part by the State of Florida, Division of Cultural Affairs, the Florida Council on Arts and Culture and the Foundation for Leon County Schools.